Generalities of the aquaculture Health Management Program

THIS IS A WORKING SYNTHESIS PREPARED BY ACUAIM SPA FOR THE PGSA CONSULTIVE COMMITTEE, IN ORDER TO INFORM ABOUT THE CONTEXT OF THE PROJECT BASED ON THE FOLLOWING ORIGINAL REPORTS: "Establishment of multidisciplinary and integrated research lines and their impact on levels of health intervention against P. salmonis in farmed salmon "by EpiVet EIRL (2017); "SRS: A review of the disease, risk factors and control strategies" by Ausvet (2017); "Scoping Report for Sanitary Management in Aquaculture" by SERNAPESCA (2017); and Estimated Economic Costs for SRS and Caligus Associated with PGSA Impact Indicators "by SERNAPESCA (2017).

INTRODUCTION

The National Service of Fisheries and Aquaculture (SERNAPESCA) was awarded with funding from the Strategic Investment Fund (FIE), from the Ministry of Economy, for the execution of the program called “Aquaculture Health Management Program”, which also receive funding and support from the Chilean Salmon Industry Association A.G.

This program looks to drive and improve the research, innovation and development of strategic knowledge through a multidisciplinary approach, in order to address the currents gaps in the research of existing diseases in the Chilean aquaculture, basically Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi. At the same time, it looks for public knowledge generation to contribute to the official sanitary management and base information transfer for technologies, solutions and advice of policy making to maintain the sustainability and improve the productivity of the salmon industry and aquaculture in general.

PGSA IMPACT GOALS

Reduction of the antimicrobial consumption index by 40%:

During 2016, a 17% decrease in the consumption index for antibiotics in salmon farming was achieved, which is why the objective for 2019 is to reduce this index by 40%, considering that the research that will be developed during 2016 and 2017 within the framework of the project will have results that will be applied directly for the reduction of the impact of piscirickettsiosis and caligidosis, either through improvements in prevention, management and/or control of these diseases.

10% reduction in mortalities resulting from infections:

Given the impact of SRS and Caligidosis on mortalities, it is expected that this project’s indicators for the reduction of mortalities, deriving directly from the optimization of managerial measures emanating from the research projects underway, will result in a decrease of mortalities resulting from infections by 10% by 2019.

Research completion and report presentation:

The number of research reports being prepared is in accordance with the agreement made with each research team, based on the content stipulated in each contract, certifying that the teams will achieve said goals.

Building official P. salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi strain collections:

The Convention on Biological Diversity has recognized the need for assembling microbial collections capable of preserving biological diversity, facilitating the prolonged use of its components and of fairly distributing the benefits obtained from these resources. In Chile there is no official strain collection for P. salmonis nor Caligus rogercresseyi, which is why it is necessary to assemble a viable collection containing their biochemical, immunological and genetic attributes that guarantee their availability for educational, research and commercial purposes, acknowledging at the same time the geographical distribution of their variations, in order to contribute to a better understanding of their epidemiological patterns in national farming centers and to contribute to the development of tools for their prevention and control.

PGSA BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION TO THE ISSUE ADDRESSED BY THE PGSA

The historical development of Chilean aquaculture, especially in the recent couple of years, has situated it as one of the main national industries, just after mining. For example, in 2014 Chilean aquaculture generated 4.700 million US dollars in exports. 94% of this amount represents salmon and trout farming. This huge production volume is comparable with countries such as Norway, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia or the United States.

This activity is relevant for the national economy and its development is fundamentally sustained by the production of three salmonid species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Coho salmon (O. kisutch). This sector represents 6% of the total exportations in Chile, 84% of this total being the exportation of sea products and 36% being food exports, generating more than 71000 jobs and 4000 small and midsize businesses created in the context of this productive activity.

The development of salmon farming is due to the numerous advantages that Chile has for this type of aquaculture. However, since the beginning of this activity, its growth has been accompanied by the presence of different diseases, Piscirickettsiosis or Septicemia Rickettsial Salmonidea (SRS) and Caligidosis being the diseases that currently have the biggest impact on the fish’s sanitary conditions, given the high cost associated with their management and control.

Both diseases are difficult to control in Chile. On one hand, the farming centers share marine environments, which is why the risk of infection is high between them. On the other hand, there are still important information and technological gaps that limit the capacity of sustainably managing the salmon farming industry. In 2015, the National Fishing and Aquaculture Service (SERNAPESCA) adjudicated the program FIE 2015-V014, called the “Program for Sanitary Management in Aquaculture” from the Strategic Investment Fund of the Ministry of Economy. This program aims to impulse and improve the research, innovation and development of strategic knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This project addresses the current gaps in research regarding the existing diseases in Chilean aquaculture, and seeks to generate public knowledge. Its aim is to contribute to official sanitary management and to contribute to the transference of base information in terms of technology, solutions and policy recommendations in order to maintain sustainability and improve the productivity of the salmon industry, as well as of the aquaculture industry in general.

After a sectorial analysis of the salmon farming industry, included in the roadmap of the National Strategic Program for Aquaculture, it has been concluded that the need for a new strategy for sanitary management in the salmon industry has arisen because of two issues in this sector. The first issue concerns the losses and greater production costs caused by the diseases. The second issue concerns the weak positioning of Chilean salmon in the North American market due to the excessive use of antibiotics, entailing lower prices and a potential market loss. Due to these reasons, these two points will be emphasized in the Program.
The roadmap’s diagnosis concludes that, in this regard, “the two principal sanitary risk factors for the industry (SRS and Caligus) have only been controlled through the use of drugs meant to tackle the consequences of agents in fish; however, the scarce involvement in research and development for vaccines, genetics and preventative plans (from the public and private sectors) has resulted in an important loss of competitiveness”.

In particular, the diagnosis affirms the need to generate productive and environmental risk-managing skills, supported by a “close and permanent connection between three principal components: a) scientific information, b) environmental and productive monitoring and c) public institutionalism”.

The ultimate goal of the Program is the generation of strategic knowledge through, among other actions, a sanitary management platform with a multidisciplinary approach that allows for the national aquaculture industry to increase in competitiveness.

The program commissions and coordinates research activities with national and international institutions and researchers, according to the defined needs

ROLES

WORKFLOW DIAGRAM

The Chilean salmon industry has an intense production system, in which infectious diseases have become the principal threat to its sustainability.

The initial focus of the project is the reduction of the annual losses in aquaculture, specifically in salmon and trout farming, caused by the diseases Piscirickettsiosis and Caligidosis, given that these diseases have historically been the most important sanitary issues for the national salmon industry during the fattening stage.

  1. Rickettsial Salmon Syndrome (SRS). An infectious disease caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis bacteria. 95% of the treatments for this disease are carried out with antibiotics, which cause between 50 – 97% of the specific mortalities. It produces annual losses of 750 million dollars.
  2. Caligidosis. This causative agent is a copepod known as “sea lice” (Caligus rogercresseyi) which is only found in the southern hemisphere. This disease causes a greater susceptibility to other diseases. The cost associated with the control and management of these diseases is very high, for the industry as well as for the government.

PGSA DEVELOPMENT

The Project starts with the definition and launching of a methodological proposal in order to overcome the strategic research gaps in the management of diseases in national aquaculture, specifically for Septicemia Rickettsial Samonidea (SRS) and Caligidosis, and in order to systemize the previous experiments concerning the elimination of these gaps.

 

Lines of action and their impact on the economic losses that are expected to diminish.

Definition of the strategic knowledge gaps for the main sanitary issues in the national salmon industry:

The gaps are to be considered as lacunas regarding scientific, strategic, technological and managerial information, related to the company and government’s needs, focused on the pursuit of a sustainable prevention and control system for infectious diseases in the salmon industry, with a timeframe ending in 2025.

The final goal is to achieve a state of controlled infectious disease outbreaks with only medium or low risks for the future of the industry. (How is risk defined? What is the projected definition for the future of the industry in 2025? Medium or low risk? Is it defined in terms of probability or is it simply qualitative?)

  1. To reach a determined level of scientific knowledge for different sub-disciplines.
  2. To develop models for the management of this knowledge.
  3. To develop a regulatory framework.
  4. To develop productive systems in accordance with the limits that the system itself establishes.

From this perspective, a strategic knowledge gap is understood in the following manner:

Where S = Sustainability for the year 2025 (desired and projected state for 2025)

CEf= Desired strategic knowledge
CEi= Initial strategic knowledge

Methodologically speaking, the identified strategic knowledge gaps are associated with research questions, which are then transformed into working hypotheses. In the first phase of the project, the gaps, questions and hypotheses are associated with SRS and Caligidosis. The process of defining the gaps is by definition collaborative, aiming towards a consensus of opinions coming from different research groups and from different disciplines. In this sense the project is a multidisciplinary work platform.

The project is a public-collaborative work platform:

Public-collaborative research is defined as a process in which multiple individuals or social groups work together in order to resolve a problem that affects them all, based on the principles of confidence, mutual support, constructive leadership, continuous learning and transparency, allowing for the combination of multiple perspectives for resolving complex problems.

These types of projects are financed and coordinated by government agencies along with other stakeholders as integral parts of the process.

In the case of the PGSA, it is a public-private project funded by the FIE of the Ministry of Economy and Intesal of Salmon Chile (the Trade Association of Salmon Producers), in which diverse national and international research groups are invited to participate and generate the strategic knowledge described during the “identification and definition of knowledge gaps” phase.

The results of the present project seek to support the decision-making processes, incorporating stakeholders and other interested groups into the knowledge building process.

Public-private and collaborative work model

The main question is how to design and develop a public collaborative research process for establishing strategic research questions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in salmon farming, taking into consideration both the biological and socio-ecological complexity of the research subject and integrating the different groups and stakeholders interested in the process.

Outbreaks of infectious diseases are the main threat for achieving a sustainable salmon industry, where SRS and Caligidosis are the two most relevant diseases. The wide variety of information and technology available, in diverse areas such as productive systems, regulations and policies or pharmacology and genetics, must be integrated and analyzed from the point of view of an adequate information management system, which would allow for the development of strategic and collaborative research for identifying information gaps and lacunas.

The most relevant aspect, from a methodological point of view of this project, is to focus on the so-called “knowledge management”.
This is the level on which the collaborative research is carried out, inasmuch as the various stakeholders are indeed integrated into the structured decision making process.

The Center for the prevention and control of aquatic diseases is the central nucleus for knowledge management. This center’s board is composed of representatives of various stakeholders.
The main lines of action are to develop policies and regulations for the national salmon farming industry; to establish mechanisms for the allocation of resources for research (and in certain cases where large gaps are present, the center could lead a research procedure); to adequately manage information, which refers to the identification of gaps, among other things; and to bring together the diverse stakeholders for the development of policies and strategies.

In this sense, it is important that all of the stakeholders that could potentially take part in a research center of this kind are summoned to participate from the very start.

Definition of a plan of action for the development of strategic and collaborative research processes for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in salmon farming.

Establishing an interactive research process based on three levels of interaction: interviews, workshops and on-line questionnaires, emphasizing the need to create spaces for dialogue and for the exchange of knowledge between research groups and stakeholders. The preliminary categories are: industry, government and academia. The process involves 4 steps, each including a determined set of activities.

Step 1. Identifying stakeholders

The process involving the identification and characterization of relevant stakeholders is key for the subsequent consolidation of work networks. The stakeholder characterization process entails an analysis allowing to group together different stakeholders and associating them in an organized and systematic manner for the various activities.

Step 2. Defining gaps

Various protocols and techniques based on the evaluation of environmental and biosafety risks by a panel of experts will be developed for this goal.

Step 3. SRS pilot

It has been established that the gaps related to the disease Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) will be prioritized and a pilot program for this disease will be carried out.

Step 4. Designing a technical-administrative management model

An adequate management model will help articulate the needs of advanced human capital and help transfer technology and information to and from the industry. Developing a conceptual management model that articulates the technical, administrative and informational dimensions is essential. In this aspect, it is important to establish working networks with successful international experiments. Two main strategies have been established in order to achieve this: 1) the realization of an international seminar on public-private management models for research and aquatic disease management. 2) Visiting a successful international experiment with a selected group of relevant stakeholders both from the industry and the public sector.

Definition of research lines

In order to define the research lines, the following research questions originally suggested in the preliminary study carried out by the P. Universidad Católica (Mardones et al., 2017) were taken into consideration.

Baseline Research Questions (BRQ).

  1. What is the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests for the detection P. salmonis?
  2. Can the results of the diagnoses be replicated if the tests are repeated? (This is related to the reliability and repeatability of the tests)
  3. What factors influence the validity and reliability of the diagnostic tests, and how can this information be used to improve the diagnostic process and disease management?
  4. What factors (risk or protective) regulate the time of the infection, the clinical presentation and the magnitude of an SRS outbreak? If these exist, how do they act or interact?
  5. What factors are associated with a greater spreading of P. salmonis in farming centers in comparison with other factors?
  6. How do these factors contribute to the development of optimal management strategies at farming center level and district level?
  7. What mechanisms influence the re-emergence of P. salmonis and C. rogercresseyi infestations in a specific farming center, and what are the biological and non-biological mechanisms that participate in the transmission and subsequent spreading of bacteria in a farming center?
  8. How to P. salmonis and C. rogercresseyi propagate from one infected farming center to another (between the areas of the farming centers) and the surrounding neighborhoods?
  9. Is spreading between and within farming centers related? How can these two mechanisms be associated in an explicative/predictive model for the use of the government and the industry?
  10. Can a dissemination model be appointed and implemented as a tool for an early surveillance system, and for evaluating management strategies or treatment models that support a decision-making process?
  11. What is the role of the density of vectors and of non-salmonid reservoirs in P. salmonis’ dynamic?
  12. What is the role of the diversity, abundance and proximity of wild species in the C. rogercresseyi infestation processes, and what are these infestation mechanisms?
  13. What biological interactions (depredation, competition) influence the abundance of C. rogercresseyi?
  14. What are the consequences of nutrient superabundance on pathogens, parasites and diseases?
  15. What characteristics of the ecosystem could predispose it to negative stabilizing Feedback (SRS outbreaks that reduce the probability of subsequent outbreaks) or to positive Feedback (SRS outbreaks that favor new outbreaks)?
  16. How does the marine landscape structure (including oceanographic and biotic factors) influence the population density and the movement patterns of the agents, vectors and transmission stages?
  17. How can information regarding the marine landscape structure be used to improve the quantitative predictions concerning the spreading and persistence of the disease (infestation)?
  18. What mechanisms are involved in the vertical transmission of P. salmonis?
  19. What are freshwater and seawater’s roles in the life stages, viability and virulence of P. salmonis?
  20. How do P. salmonis strains differ in terms of pathogenicity and virulence, and how does the host respond to these differences?
  21. How does P. salmonis interact with surfaces, how does it survive outside of the host and how are signals transmitted between the microorganism and the host?
  22. How do P. salmonis strains differ in terms of host susceptibility and geographic zones? What is the organism’s population structure like?
  23. What is the frequency of resistant P. salmonis strains, if these do so exist, prior to the use of antimicrobials in a farming center?
  24. What are the processes related to the emergence of resistance to drugs and the timeline for the generation of this resistance in P. salmonis?
  25. What are the best drugs, models and treatment strategies to implement, considering the need to reduce resistance to drugs?
  26. What mechanisms are involved in C. rogercresseyi transmission?
  27. What are the key stages of the life cycle in the infestation process?
  28. How does the duration and behavior of the planktonic stages of Caligus increase the risk of infection?
  29. What are the genetic differences at population level that intensify the success of a C. rogercresseyi infestation? What is the population structure like?
  30. What is the frequency of specimens resistant to Caligus in wild and farmed salmon?
  31. What are the processes related to the appearance of resistance to drugs in Caligus?
  32. What are the best medication, rotation model and strategies to implement in order to avoid resistance to drugs?
  33. What are the conditions that determine whether P. salmonis establishes an infection or whether it is removed by the immune system? What are the salmonid’s immune mechanisms for diminishing the adverse effects of C. rogercresseyi?
  34. What is the correlation between the bacterial dynamic, damage and inflammation and the host’s response? What is the correlation between the bacterial load (abundance of P. salmonis) and the magnitude of the antibacterial immune response?
  35. How will the use of vaccines and alternative products intended to increase the strength of the immune response reduce the fish’s susceptibility and the decrease of decay rates?
  36. What is the mechanism involved in the immune response against multiple pathogens? What role do stress and the threshold for immunity play?
  37. Does a time sequence pattern for the different diseases exist?
  38. What is the most effective antibiotic/antiparasitic drug that is currently available? What is its sensitivity like?
  39. How different are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs? What factors regulate these processes?
  40. How can the effective plasma concentrations be measured? How is the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial susceptibility correlated to the success of the treatment?
  41. How can a new generation of antimicrobials/antiparasitic drugs be developed? How can their optimal performance be assured (safety, efficacy, low cost, easy application, etc.)?
  42. How can alternative treatments (prebiotics, additives, immunostimulants) be developed and used? How can their optimal functioning be assured?
  43. How can the prescribed dosage be assured for each treatment?
  44. What rotation model with different drugs minimizes Caligus’ and P. salmonis’ resistance to drugs?
  45. Is the spatial scale of the districts for salmon farming appropriate? Do they need to coordinate concerning Caligus and P. salmonis control?
  46. What are the ecological impacts and the costs of these rotation systems?
  47. What are the areas of the genome (genetic markers) that codify the resistance mechanisms against C. rogercresseyi and P. salmonis?
  48. Are the genetic resistance mechanisms described in the same way in experimental and natural infections? How can we standardize an evaluation of this?
  49. How does genetic selection for the resistance to diseases interfere with desirable productive and sanitary characteristics?
  50. What are the areas of the genome (genetic markers) that codify resistance mechanisms against drugs in the pathogens?
  51. Are the genetic resistance mechanisms described in the same way in experimental and natural infections? How can we standardize an evaluation of this?
  52. How can an interdisciplinary research framework be developed in order to optimize the approaches and the necessary interventions for reducing the risk of diseases in salmon farming?
  53. How can the impacts and the effectiveness of animal health decisions, including cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, well-being measures, externalities, risk, information asymmetry, strategic behavior and others be measured?
  54. How can research policies for optimal surveillance and control of infectious diseases be developed?
  55. How can research policies for optimal information and data communication be developed, as well as adaptive management strategies and policies for infectious diseases?
  56. How can the opinion of the interested parties and other groups of interest be included in the policy-making process?
  57. How can the communication and understanding between researchers, the general public and veterinary professionals be increased?
  58. What are the benefits and costs of the implementation of these kinds of policies?
  59. What are the most relevant virulence factors that are useful for the development of an efficient vaccine against P. salmonis?
  60. How can antigen absorption, processing and presentation for the fish’s immune system be improved at the mucosa level as a booster vaccine strategy?
  61. How can standards and adequate evaluation methods for the safety of the vaccine, its efficacy and transmission be defined?

A report concerning the gaps derived from these basic research questions was prepared by a team of experts, in which questions from this list that could be partially answered, as well as questions requiring information that still had to be collected, were identified. This is how the research lines were defined.

PGSA RESEARCH LINES

# SRS RESEARCH LINES
1 Early detection of the P. salmonis infection.
2 Epidemiological studies of the P. salmonis infection in farmed salmon.
3 P. salmonis transmission between cages, farming centers and ACS
4 P. salmonis epidemiological modelling
5 SRS spatial characterization
6 The ecosystem’s role in P. salmonis dispersion
7 Establishing a regulatory framework based on research for preventing and controlling SRS
8 The economy of SRS control, control strategies and surveillance
9 P. salmonis transmission and virulence
10 Susceptibility to P. salmonis in the environment
11 Host immune response to P. salmonis
12 “Omics” approach for determining resistance to P. salmonis
13 Studies regarding antimicrobial efficacy and effectiveness against P. salmonis
14 Therapeutic models against P. salmonis
15 “Omics” approaches for determining resistance to P. salmonis

 

# CALIGIDOSIS RESEARCH LINES
1 Epidemiological studies for Caligus rogercresseyi infestations in farmed salmon
2 Caligus rogercresseyi transmission mechanisms between cages, farming centers and ACS
3 Epidemiological modelling for Caligus rogercresseyi for the evaluation of control strategies
4 Spatial characterization of zones with high and low potential for Caligus rogercresseyi abundance
5 The ecosystem’s role in the abundance of Caligus rogercresseyi
6 Establishing a research-based regulatory framework
7 The economy of Caligus rogercresseyi and animal health
8 Population structure and transmission stages for Caligus rogercresseyi in the ecosystem
9 Antiparasitic transmission mechanisms in the field
10 Evaluation of genetic resistance mechanisms for Caligus rogercresseyi in the field
11 Evaluation of the salmon’s genetic resistance mechanisms in the field
12 Evaluation of the immune response for salmon and Caligidosis
13 Studies on antiparasitic efficacy
14 Studies on therapeutic effectiveness in the field

The Quality Control process for studies and research

In order to address the Quality Control process for the research developed within the context of this program, SERNAPESCA hired the Faculty of Biological Sciences (FCB) of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC).

The quality was defined by the Program as the approval of the process deriving from the realization and compliance with the defined goals for the research activities, in terms of the expected scientific-technological significance, resource assignation, timeframes, deadlines, attainment and impact of the results.

The quality control of the research project refers to the evaluation process of the compliance with the technical commitments considered in the Technical Terms of Reference (TTR) by the entity responsible for its execution.

The evaluation of the final research reports is carried out by the Research Line Coordinators, with the help of a team of evaluators related thematically according to the scientific-technological significance of the project, guaranteeing confidentiality, rigorousness, objectivity and a total absence of bias during this process. The evaluation consists of conclusions and one recommendation regarding the degree of fulfillment of the goals, the plan of action and the expected results.

The design and execution of the quality control process took into account the following goals:

  • The search and selection of research organizations
  • The search and formation of the evaluation and review teams
  • The design of the methodology for quality control
  • The search and selection of the research projects
  • The elaboration of the Technical Terms of Reference for the research projects
  • The execution of the quality control process for the research projects

GOALS AND METRICS

Goals Description Indicator Metrics Verification process Probability of Success Deviation Justification
General Goal Improve public-private health management in aquaculture based on strategic knowledge developed within a health management platform that coordinates national and international research according to predefined goals.
  • Annual losses in salmon farming by SRS (750 Million USD):
  • Explained by: Mortality 2019 / Mortality 2015
  • Mortality is broken down into dead biomass per Trimester of cycle:
    • T3: + 3Kg
    • T2: 1.5 – 3 Kg
    • T1: 0.1- 1.5 Kg
  • Antibiotic use:

    (Kg of Antibiotics / Ton salmon produced 2019) / (Kg of Antibiotics / Ton salmon produced 2015)

  • Antiparasitic use:

    (Kg of Antiparasitic / Ton salmon produced 2019) / (Kg of Antiparasitic / Ton salmon produced 2015)

  1. Average Mortality: Decrease of 10 percentage points
  2. Decrease in percentage of dead biomass:
    • T3: 3-4% 2019
    • T2: 5-6% 2019
    • T1: 6-7% 2019
  3. Antibiotics use index: 40% Decrease
  4. Antiparasitic use index: 40% Decrease
1-2-3-4) Indicators based on data provided by SERNAPESCA Health Report.

Calculation of indicators and verification of metrics at the end of 2019.

  1. 40%
  2. 40%
  3. 40%
  4. 40%
1-2) Late start of activities due to administrative procedures.

2 years deviation

Actual duration: 50% less execution time.

3-4) Success is mainly related with good practices. The normative changes will impact the year following the implementation (2019-2020)

Specific goal1 Identify research lines, relevant research groups and establishment of the technical-administrative management model of operation of the Health Management Platform. Identified lines, approved-structured-operative. Technical-administrative management model Prospected.
  1. At least 5 lines delineated.
  2. One Multidisciplinary approach line.
  3. Strategic communication plan.
  4. Prototype of management model.
1-2-3-4) Project directory document with approved definitions.

Approval of definitions by FIE.

  1. 100%
  2. 100%
  3. 100%
  4. 100%
Specific goal 2 Development of predefined research lines using the tools available in the Health Management Platform.
  1. Technical terms of reference in platform.
  2. Contracts signed-approved.
  3. Results derived from Contracts.
  1. Minimum 20
  2. Minimum 20
  3. Minimum 20
1-2-3) Final reports approved by the project and FIE directory.
  1. 100%
  2. 100%
  3. 90%
3) Late start of activities due to administrative procedures.

Deviation because that adds risk to the timely closing of studies and delivery of final products.

Specific goal 3 Transfer of knowledge of strategic implementation and dissemination of results.
  1. Strategic recommendations Standard or good practices based on Results.
  2. Draft strategic implementation instruments of the recommendations derived from the Program with economic evaluation and feasibility.
  3. Seminars and dissemination activities.
  1. Minimum 20
  2. At least 3 Instruments that consolidate the recommendations.
  3. Minimum 6.
1-2) Final reports strategic recommendations-drafts of implementation instruments approved by the board and FIE.

3)Photographic documentation and minutes of attendance to seminars and dissemination activities.

  1. 90%
  2. 90%
  3. 100%
2 years deviation actual duration: 50% less execution time.

1-2) There are recommendations that could be left out due to project closure.

Specific goal 4 Training of HR within the framework of strategic research areas.
  1. Number of professionals trained.
  2. Students participating in research activities.
  1. Minimum 5 trainees
  2. Minimum 20 trainees
  1. List of undergraduate and graduate students who participate in research activities within the project.
  2. List of trained professionals.
  1. 100%
  2. 100%
1-2) Positive deviation: There could be up to 50% more professionals approached.